“But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people.”
In 1796, Adams was elected as the Federalist nominee for president.Thomas Jefferson led the opposition for the Democratic-Republican Party. Adams won the election by a narrow margin, becoming the second president of the United States.
During Adams’s presidency, a war between the French and British was causing political difficulties for the United States. Adams’s administration focused its diplomatic efforts on France, whose government had suspended commercial relations. Adams sent three commissioners to France, but the French refused to negotiate unless the United States agreed to pay what amounted to a bribe. When this became public knowledge, the nation broke out in favor of war. However, Adams did not call for a declaration of war, despite some naval hostilities.
By 1800, this undeclared war had ended, and Adams had become significantly less popular with the public. He lost his re-election campaign in 1800, with only a few less electoral votes than Thomas Jefferson, who became president.
Both Adams and Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of American independence. Adams’s last words were, “Thomas Jefferson survives.”
John Quincy Adams, Adams’s son, would eventually become the sixth president of the United States, though he was a member of the opposition party, the Democratic-Republicans.
John Adams and Abigail Smith
On October 25, 1764, John Adams married Abigail, the daughter of Reverend William Smith and his wife Elizabeth Quincy Smith. She was born in Weymouth, MA, in 1744, where her father was a Congregationalist minister. Abigail’s mother, Elizabeth Quincy, was born in 1721 in Braintree, MA, the daughter of John Quincy and Elizabeth Norton. John Quincy was Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly and part of the Governor’s council.
John and Abigail’s Descendants
Abigail gave birth to six children, of which four grew to adulthood. Their children were:
- Abigail “Nabby” (1765-1813), who married William Stephens Smith and had four children: William Steuben Smith, John Adams Smith, Thomas Hollis Smith, and Caroline Amelia Smith.
- John Quincy (1767-1848), who became the sixth U.S. President and married Louisa Catherine Johnson. They had four children: George Washington Adams, John Adams, Charles Francis Adams, and Louisa Catherine Adams.
- Susanna (1768-1770)
- Charles (1770-1800), who married Sarah Smith and had two children: Susanna Boylston Adams and Abigail Louisa Adams.
- Thomas Boylston (1772-1832), who married Ann Harrod and had seven children: Abigail Smith Adams, Elizabeth Coombs Adams, Thomas Boylston Adams, Isaac Hull Adams, John Quincy Adams, and Joseph Harrod Adams.
- Elizabeth (stillborn 1777)
Abigail Smith Adams died at their home in Quincy of typhoid fever on October 28, 1818. Her husband died at Quincy on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. They are buried beside each other in a crypt at the United First Parish Church (also called the Church of the Presidents) in Quincy.
- The Portrait of John Adams,1827 at OneKingsLane.com (sfluxe.com)
- John Quincy Adams (eliteacademicessays.wordpress.com)